Committee Approves Milwaukee Streetcar
Mayor offers historic address to council committee on streetcar and it gains their approval. Only one person speaks in opposition.
The proposed Milwaukee Streetcar starter system was advanced today at a marathon meeting of the Common Council’s Zoning, Neighborhoods & Development Committee. Four of the five members of the committee voted to approve using two tax-incremental financing (TIF) districts to fund the construction costs of the system following extensive positive public testimony and presentations by Mayor Tom Barrett, Department of City Development commissioner Rocky Marcoux (PDF), The Couture developer Rick Barrett, and The Couture architect Matt Rinka. The project is still on track for a December 16th Common Council vote and appears to be gaining supporters. Alds. Ashanti Hamilton and Willie Wade, Jr. added their names as co-sponsors of the legislation.
The Mayor’s Presentation
An all-hands-on-deck streetcar push by the mayor’s office had Barrett himself making a rare appearance before a Milwaukee Common Council committee. Mayors rarely address the council. According to Barrett, who has served in the position for more than a decade, this was the first time he could ever remember making a presentation to the council using a slideshow (which he drew laughs by noting it wasn’t a Marcoux-style presentation– known for their length, high energy and fast pace). The mayor’s presentation (PDF) focused on three key areas: why this project, why downtown and why now.
Why This Project?
Barrett’s hammered on the notion that the streetcar is a tool for economic development and a piece of a comprehensive transportation system.
The mayor noted that “we have to attain and attract more business” and that the streetcar would generate “investment and growth along and near the route.” He highlighted at length the success of similar systems in Portland, Seattle and other cities. As for the streetcar competing for scarce resources, including the federal funds that enable it, Barrett noted that “we have not starved our local streets and we don’t intend to.” Barrett pointed out that under his administration, the street replacement cycle has gone from 108 years per street to 62 years.
He went on to explain the legislation authorizing the $54.9 million in federal funds mandates the funds must go for a streetcar system. It would take an act of Congress to reallocate them to something else. The mayor indicated his belief that if Milwaukee doesn’t spend the funds on a streetcar, cities like Cincinnati or St. Louis would push for the funds to be re-allocated to their streetcar projects.
The mayor used a data-driven argument to show the project would “get it right out of the gate.” Downtown, he noted, is the city’s central business district, with 80,000 workers, 25,000 residents and 5.5 million annual visitors. The route would pass 100 percent of downtown hotels, 90 percent of occupied office space, 90 percent of occupied retail space, 77 percent of parking stalls, 77 percent of downtown housing, 90 percent of downtown attractions and all of downtown’s 20 largest employers
Citing the census bureau’s average-weighted density figure, the mayor noted that Milwaukee ranks 14th and is the highest-ranked city without a fixed rail transit system. In the top 40 cities by average-weighted density, the only cities without fixed rail transit are San Antonio, Fresno, El Paso, Wichita and Raleigh. Barrett argued that much of the metropolitan region doesn’t have the density to support a streetcar system, but Downtown and many areas around it do.
Barrett’s argument here was pretty straightforward. The council had previously voted to authorize engineering the streetcar to 60 percent completion. After the legal challenges put forth by the state, they’re now at that point and ready to move forward. He noted they’ve worked through the utilities challenges (detailed below). As he referenced earlier in his presentation, the mayor is looking to continue the momentum from the $5 billion in projects since 2005, including those completed, under construction and planned for development.
Barrett ended his presentation by stating “it is important for us to double down on the future of this city.”
The cost to relocate the utilities for the streetcar project has been an extremely contentious issue. Initial cost estimates put the relocation expense as high as $70 million. A legal challenge continues by the city attorney against the state Public Service Commission regarding its decision that the city must pay the entire cost of relocation (which would be unique to public works projects in this state). But Barrett noted that city engineering work has already reduced those costs by nearly $50 million. All parties involved in the discussion have agreed that as of today the relocation costs for the project would be $22.7 million, Barrett said. He noted that the utilities (of which the biggest is We Energies) have indicated a number of minor route modifications that would drive down utilities costs by millions more. The mayor stated that the city is actively working on those modifications as part of its engineering work. “I am 100 percent confident that number is going to come down by millions of dollars,” Barrett said, concluding his remarks.
Streetcar Cost Breakdown
Barrett presented a detailed cost breakdown of the streetcar during his presentation this morning. Costs
- Maintenance facility: $7.5 million
- 4 Vehicles: $17.6 million
- Phase 1 route: $73.8 million
- Phase 2 route (Lakefront extension): $25 million
- Federal ISTEA funding : $54.9 million
- Federal TIGER grant: $10 million
- Cathedral Place #49 TIF: $9.7 million
- Erie/Jefferson Riverwalk TIF #56: $18.3 million
- East Michigan St. TIF #82: $31.0 million
The mayor’s presentation laid out the following schedule for the project.
- Vehicle selection: 2015
- Final design: 2015
- Construction: 2015-2017
- Streetcar operations: 2018
Milwaukee Journal Sentinel Called to the Table
In a strange twist of standard operating procedure, Ald. Willie Wade asked if a reporter from the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel was present, and then called that reporter to the table to answer questions. The paper’s new city hall reporter, Crocker Stephenson, came forward (under no legal requirement to do so, as chairman Jim Bohl noted). Wade rhetorically asked Stephenson if he had heard Marcoux state that the funds couldn’t be used for anything else. He then went on to ask why the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel keeps printing that they could be, which drew lots of laughter (and some gasps) from the room. Ald. Robert Bauman interrupted to note that he didn’t think it was the fault of the paper, but some of his colleagues (clearly a dig at Ald. Robert Donovan and maybe others) distributing false information. The strange exchange resulted in lots of laughs, including by Stephenson and Wade, but also drove home a oft-misunderstood point. According to federal law dating back to 2011, the $54.9 million in federal funds cannot be used for anything other than a streetcar project in Milwaukee. The only way to change this would be to get Congress to re-appropriate the money. The state’s rejection of the $823 million in high speed rail funds illustrates what is the more likely result: when one state rejects the funds they go to similar projects in other districts.
Redevelopment Authority Bonding
In his ongoing quest to kill the project, Donovan has put forth the argument that the use of redevelopment authority (RACM) bonds to pay for the infrastructure is a way to avoid any referendum on the project. The bonds by the redevelopment authority offer a better deal for the taxpayers because they’re not secured by city tax revenues, but instead by project revenues. Marcoux noted that they don’t always use RACM bonding, but it is commonly used and is nothing unusual.
The city is eager to get to work on the extensions for the project. Marcoux noted the mayor has directed the project team to move forward with extension planning immediately in 2015. Marcoux intends to issue a request-for-proposals in January 2015 to plan the four extensions (UWM, Bronzeville, Marquette/Avenues West and Walker’s Point/Bay View/airport). Responding to a question from Alderman Jose Perez, Marcoux noted how eager they are to get extensions in the ground (as the mayor said during his speech, it is a “trojan horse” designed to get into the ground and expanded quickly). Marcoux had earlier stated that they are working on a timeline that could have extensions breaking ground before the first phase even finishes construction.
Speaking in Favor
A number of people spoke in favor of the proposed streetcar system. I’ve included them below and the organizations they noted they were representing. Speakers included Michael Cudahy (Discovery World), Juli Kaufmann (Fix Development), Bill Sell (citizen), Jerome Knapp (BID #8 – Historic King Drive), Beth Wierick (BID #21 – Milwaukee Downtown), Nick Johnson (Hilton Garden Inn), Dan Bukiewicz (Milwaukee Building and Construction Trades Council), Dr. Eve Hall (African American Chamber of Commerce), Gary Grunau (citizen and owner of Schlitz Park), Earl Buford (Milwaukee Area Workforce Investment Board), Teresa Thomas-Boyd (citizen), Jackie Ivy (citizen).
Not speaking, but registering themselves in support included Jorge Franco (Hispanic Chamber of Commerce), Stacie Callies (Westown Assocation, BID #5 – Westown), Nancy O’Keefe (Historic Third Ward Association, BID #2 – Historic Third Ward), Ken Kramer (citizen), Tony Neira (laborers local #113), Dave Reid (citizen and Urban Milwaukee Publisher).
The Only Opposition
Alderman Tony Zielinski was the only person to speak in opposition to the project. Zielinski, who does not serve on the committee, attempted to introduce an amendment to split the new East Michigan St. TIF district in two. This change would allow for individual votes on The Couture financing and streetcar financing. Finding no support from the committee to introduce his amendment, Zielinski stated that he would attempt to introduce it on the council floor. During Zielinski’s testimony, alderman Bauman asked of Zielinski if he heard developer Rick Barrett say he could not move forward with The Couture unless the streetcar project also happened. Zielinski said he did. Bauman then asked Zielinski if he thought Barrett was a “liar or incompetent?” Zielinski said he disagreed with the characterization, but clearly things were getting testy. Alderman Bohl stepped in to ask for civility. Zielinski went on to say that he had an article from 2012 that said the project could move forward without anything else (waving a BizTimes article in his hand), and that he thought things could change again. This drew no response from the committee.
New Streetcar Supporters
The streetcar project has long had two active champions on the council, Bauman and Nik Kovac. But it appears others are jumping aboard. Alderman Hamilton asked to be added as a co-sponsor and noted “it really is time for us to embrace something that is bold enough to have a reverberating impact across the city. Downtown is everybody’s neighborhood. This is where everybody comes.” Hamilton also noted that he was sitting in on the committee for Kovac, who is out of town. Alderman Wade also asked to be added as a co-sponsor. Clearly aimed at referendum backers alderman Donovan and Davis, Wade stated “this is why we are elected. To make bold, courageous decisions, even when we’re staring in the face of opposition. That’s what leaders do.”
The committee, including committee substitute Ashanti Hamilton, voted 4 to 1 to approve both of the TIF distrcts as financing mechanisms for the streetcar’s construction (and for the public infrastructure portion of The Couture). Aldermen Bauman, Hamilton, Perez and Wade voted in favor. Committee chair Jim Bohl voted in opposition.
The project will be voted on Wednesday morning by the Public Works Committee chaired by Bauman. That committee could possibly vote against the proposal, although its impact on the eventual full council approval of the project is unclear. The Public Works Committee is made up of streetcar sponsors alderman Bauman and Wade, mayoral candidates and streetcar opponents aldermen Davis and Donovan and Bohl, who voted against the project today, but was cordial in allowing it to move forward. Regardless of what happens on Wednesday, the project will be heard in a full meeting of the common council on December 16th.
Streetcar Map and Renderings
Urban Milwaukee Streetcar Coverage
- Committee Takes No Action on Streetcar – Jeramey Jannene – December 10th, 2014
- Committee Approves Milwaukee Streetcar – Jeramey Jannene – December 9th, 2014
- RACM Approves Tax Funding for Streetcar – Michael Horne – December 8th, 2014
- How to Sell the Streetcar – Michael Horne – November 28th, 2014
- Next Stops for the Streetcar – Michael Horne – November 24th, 2014
- Barrett Moving Forward with Streetcar – Jeramey Jannene – November 18th, 2014
- Who Will Be Streetcar Operator – Michael Horne – May 8th, 2014
- A Streetcar Named Cooperation? – Dave Reid – April 27th, 2014
- How a Streetcar Spurs Development – Angie Schmitt – November 3rd, 2013
- Streetcar Social – Michael Horne – September 12th, 2013
- Mayor Says Streetcar is a “Trojan Horse” – Michael Horne – April 17th, 2013
- Whoops, We Changed Our Mind – Dave Reid – September 27th, 2012
- Battle of the Bobs: Donovan vs Bauman Streetcar Press Conference – Jeramey Jannene – May 18th, 2012
- Important Hoan Bridge and Milwaukee Streetcar Meetings This Week – Dave Reid – November 14th, 2011
- Milwaukee Streetcar Passes Common Council – Jeramey Jannene – July 26th, 2011
- Keep the Milwaukee Streetcar Moving Forward – Jeramey Jannene – July 8th, 2011
- Milwaukee Streetcar at Apex – Jeramey Jannene – June 16th, 2011
- Milwaukee Streetcar Takes Key Step Forward – Jeramey Jannene – May 6th, 2010
- Milwaukee Streetcar Meeting This Thursday – Jeramey Jannene – October 5th, 2009
- Milwaukee Streetcar Routes Unveiled by Mayor Barrett – Jeramey Jannene – September 21st, 2009
- Milwaukee Streetcar Round-Up – Jeramey Jannene – April 19th, 2009
- Vote for your Favorite Milwaukee Streetcar Route – Jeramey Jannene – March 25th, 2009
- Design Your Own Streetcar Route – Jeramey Jannene – March 23rd, 2009
- Streetcars Coming to Milwaukee – Dave Reid – March 14th, 2009
Have an Opinion?
Let the Common Council and Mayor know what you think about the project via the form on our website. We’ll keep it open until the expected project vote on December 16th.
More about the Milwaukee Streetcar
For more project details, including the project timeline, financing, route and possible extensions, see our extensive past coverage.
- Join Us Tonight For The Third Community Workshop For The Moving Milwaukee Forward Study - City of Milwaukee - Jan 31st, 2018
- Bastille Days announces new footprint for 2018 festival - East Town Association - Jan 25th, 2018
- Op Ed: Don’t Make Streetcar Rides Free - Jay Bullock - Jan 2nd, 2018
- Eyes on Milwaukee: $65 Million Spent on Streetcar - Jeramey Jannene - Dec 18th, 2017
- Transit Workers Union Announces Milwaukee Streetcar Labor Peace Agreement - Amalgamated Transit Union Local 998 - Dec 1st, 2017
- Plenty of Horne: How Will Streetcar Stops Be Designed? - Michael Horne - Nov 27th, 2017
- City of Milwaukee Issues RFP For Milwaukee Streetcar Marketing Services - City of Milwaukee Dept. of Public Works - Nov 21st, 2017
- Eyes on Milwaukee: Who Wants To Market The Streetcar? - Jeramey Jannene - Nov 20th, 2017
- Will Streetcar Gentrify Bronzeville? - Elliot Hughes - Nov 8th, 2017
- Eyes on Milwaukee: City Holding Streetcar Planning Meetings Saturday - Jeramey Jannene - Nov 3rd, 2017
- Eyes on Milwaukee: See Streetcar Floors Made Locally - Jeramey Jannene - Oct 26th, 2017
- New poll shows Milwaukee area’s divided feelings on Foxconn, views on other topics as Marquette Law School launches expanded public policy program - Marquette University - Oct 24th, 2017
- Mayor Barrett needs to start listening to the people - Ald. Bob Donovan - Oct 24th, 2017
- Mayor’s Chief of Staff Responds to Ald. Zielinski - Patrick Curley - Oct 24th, 2017
- Eyes on Milwaukee: Zielinski Again Attacks Mayor, Streetcar - Jeramey Jannene - Oct 24th, 2017
- Ald. Zielinski: Mayor diverts additional funding for streetcar that could go to more cops - Ald. Tony Zielinski - Oct 23rd, 2017
- Eyes on Milwaukee: Potawatomi Gives $10 Million To Streetcar - Jeramey Jannene - Oct 6th, 2017
- City and Potawatomi strike 12-year, $10 million streetcar presenting sponsorship agreement, includes free rides for the first 12 months - City of Milwaukee - Oct 6th, 2017
- How Streetcar Could Change King Drive - Elizabeth Baker - Oct 5th, 2017
- The Streetcar, Public Safety and Our Budget Crisis An Honest Assessment of Milwaukee’s Status Quo - Ald. Bob Donovan - Oct 4th, 2017
- Alderman Zielinski tells Mayor Barrett: Cut the streetcar, don’t cut protective services - Ald. Tony Zielinski - Sep 27th, 2017
- Eyes on Milwaukee: Republicans Heap Hate On Streetcar - Jeramey Jannene - Sep 7th, 2017
- Eyes on Milwaukee: City Chooses Streetcar Operator - Jeramey Jannene - Sep 6th, 2017
- Milwaukee Streetcar Construction on Target to Meet Residential Preference Program, DBE Goals - City of Milwaukee Dept. of Public Works - Jul 21st, 2017
- Friday Photos: Streetcar Tracks Getting Road Tested - Jeramey Jannene - Jun 30th, 2017
- Eyes on Milwaukee: $30 Million Spent on Streetcar - Jeramey Jannene - May 19th, 2017
- Eyes on Milwaukee: Streetcar Track Getting Installed - Jeramey Jannene - May 12th, 2017
- Eyes on Milwaukee: County Gets Waiver on Streetcar - Jeramey Jannene - Apr 17th, 2017
- Eyes on Milwaukee: Streetcar Rails Being Welded - Jeramey Jannene - Apr 7th, 2017
- Eyes on Milwaukee: City Won’t Delay Streetcar for County - Jeramey Jannene - Mar 28th, 2017
- Eyes on Milwaukee: County Board Okays Bid for Streetcar - Jeramey Jannene - Mar 23rd, 2017
- Eyes on Milwaukee: Streetcar Track Steel Has Arrived - Jeramey Jannene - Mar 16th, 2017
- Eyes on Milwaukee: Should County Operate Streetcar? - Jeramey Jannene - Mar 8th, 2017
- Eyes on Milwaukee: Streetcar Track Construction Starts in April - Jeramey Jannene - Feb 17th, 2017
- Streetsblog: 80 Transit Projects in 2017 - Angie Schmitt - Feb 6th, 2017
- Eyes on Milwaukee: The Milwaukee Streetcar is Hiring - Jeramey Jannene - Jan 20th, 2017
- Eyes on Milwaukee: Streetcar Project Receives Federal Grant - Jeramey Jannene - Oct 12th, 2016
- Eyes on Milwaukee: Cincinnati Streetcar Opens - Jeramey Jannene - Sep 19th, 2016
- Eyes on Milwaukee: Council Okays Streetcar to Bucks Arena - Jeramey Jannene - Jul 6th, 2016
- Eyes on Milwaukee: $6.5 Million in Streetcar Savings - Jeramey Jannene - Feb 26th, 2016
- Eyes on Milwaukee: Donovan Lies About Streetcar Suit - Jeramey Jannene - Feb 15th, 2016
- Eyes on Milwaukee: BID Sells Streetcar-Related Development - Jeramey Jannene - Jan 15th, 2016
- Murphy’s Law: Do Millennials Oppose the Streetcar? - Bruce Murphy - Dec 15th, 2015
- Eyes on Milwaukee: Pennsylvania Company Wins Streetcar Contract - Jeramey Jannene - Nov 13th, 2015
- Plenty of Horne: City Accepts $14 Million Federal Streetcar Grant - Michael Horne - Oct 29th, 2015
- Back in the News: Anti-Streetcar Petition Dies - Bruce Murphy - Aug 28th, 2015
- Eyes on Milwaukee: Scott Walker Aids Milwaukee Streetcar - Jeramey Jannene - Jul 13th, 2015
- Eyes on Milwaukee: Streetcar Construction Starts in October - Jeramey Jannene - Jul 10th, 2015
- Murphy’s Law: The Strange Politics of Anti-Streetcar-ites - Bruce Murphy - Jun 18th, 2015
- Plenty of Horne: Bucks Plan Envisions Arena Streetcar - Michael Horne - Apr 8th, 2015
- A Short History of Milwaukee’s Old Streetcar System - Ken Smith - Mar 31st, 2015
- Plenty of Horne: Davis Sets, Cancels Meeting on Streetcar - Michael Horne - Mar 17th, 2015
- Back in the News: Anti-Streetcar Petition Drive Fails - Bruce Murphy - Mar 5th, 2015
- Friday Photos: Streetcar Signing Is Quite a Celebration - Michael Horne - Feb 13th, 2015
- Eyes on Milwaukee: Milwaukee Streetcar Approved - Jeramey Jannene - Feb 10th, 2015
- Murphy’s Law: Who is “Lobbying” For the Streetcar? - Bruce Murphy - Feb 5th, 2015
- Data Wonk: Will Streetcar Help The Inner City? - Bruce Thompson - Feb 4th, 2015
- Back in the News: City Attorney Says Streetcar Petitions Might be Moot - Bruce Murphy - Jan 30th, 2015
- Data Wonk: Millennials And The Streetcar - Bruce Thompson - Jan 27th, 2015
- Op-Ed: Why I Support the Streetcar - Russell Rossetto - Jan 26th, 2015
- Eyes on Milwaukee: Streetcar Responses Shows Wide Support - Jeramey Jannene - Jan 22nd, 2015
- Eyes on Milwaukee: Streetcar Approved, but Held - Jeramey Jannene - Jan 21st, 2015
- Murphy’s Law: Koch-Funded Group Backs Anti-Streetcar Drive - Bruce Murphy - Jan 20th, 2015
- Eyes on Milwaukee: Streetcar Backers Say They Have the Votes - Jeramey Jannene - Jan 20th, 2015
- Murphy’s Law: Who Is Funding the Anti-Streetcar Effort? - Bruce Murphy - Jan 20th, 2015
- Op Ed: Why the Streetcar Won’t Work - Samuel Jensen - Jan 14th, 2015
- Murphy’s Law: Will Anti-Streetcar Referendum Succeed? - Bruce Murphy - Jan 9th, 2015
- The Story Behind the Streetcar Referendum - Michael Horne and Bruce Murphy - Jan 8th, 2015
- Eyes on Milwaukee: Council Delays Streetcar Until January - Jeramey Jannene - Dec 16th, 2014
- Eyes on Milwaukee: Committee Takes No Action on Streetcar - Jeramey Jannene - Dec 10th, 2014
- Eyes on Milwaukee: Committee Approves Milwaukee Streetcar - Jeramey Jannene - Dec 9th, 2014
- Plenty of Horne: RACM Approves Tax Funding for Streetcar - Michael Horne - Dec 2nd, 2014
- Plenty of Horne: How to Sell the Streetcar - Michael Horne - Nov 28th, 2014
- Plenty of Horne: Next Stops For The Streetcar - Michael Horne - Nov 24th, 2014
- Eyes on Milwaukee: Barrett Moving Forward With Streetcar - Jeramey Jannene - Nov 18th, 2014
- Plenty of Horne: Who Will Be Streetcar Operator? - Michael Horne - May 8th, 2014
- Back in the News: A Streetcar Named Cooperation? - Dave Reid - Apr 27th, 2014
- Streetsblog: How a Streetcar Spurs Development - Angie Schmitt - Nov 3rd, 2013
- Plenty of Horne: Streetcar Social - Michael Horne - Sep 12th, 2013
- Republicans Move to Kill Milwaukee Streetcar - Jeramey Jannene - May 9th, 2013
- Plenty of Horne: Mayor Says Streetcar is “Trojan Horse” - Michael Horne - Apr 17th, 2013
- Streetcar Meeting on Tuesday - Jeramey Jannene - Oct 29th, 2012
- Whoops, We Changed Our Mind - Dave Reid - Sep 27th, 2012
- Donovan’s New Anti-Streetcar Allies - Jeramey Jannene - Aug 16th, 2012
- Battle of the Bobs: Donovan vs Bauman Streetcar Press Conference - Jeramey Jannene - May 18th, 2012
- Milwaukee Streetcar Hearing at Frontier Airlines Center - Jeramey Jannene - Nov 15th, 2011
- Important Hoan Bridge and Milwaukee Streetcar Meetings this Week - Dave Reid - Nov 14th, 2011
- Milwaukee Streetcar Passes Common Council, Proceeds to Final Engineering - Jeramey Jannene - Jul 26th, 2011
- Alderman Donovan Proposes Delaying the Streetcar Project - Dave Reid - Jul 19th, 2011
- Barrett says Streetcar is an investment in growing Milwaukee - Patti Wenzel - Jul 13th, 2011
- Keep the Milwaukee Streetcar Moving Forward - Jeramey Jannene - Jul 8th, 2011
- Milwaukee Streetcar at Apex - Jeramey Jannene - Jun 16th, 2011
- Milwaukee Streetcar Takes Key Step Forward - Jeramey Jannene - May 6th, 2010
- Streetcars and Trams Around the World - Dave Reid - Feb 1st, 2010
- Milwaukee Streetcar Meeting This Thursday - Jeramey Jannene - Oct 5th, 2009
- Downtown Streetcar Open House - Jeramey Jannene - Sep 23rd, 2009
- Milwaukee Streetcar Routes Unveiled by Mayor Barrett - Jeramey Jannene - Sep 21st, 2009
- Common Council Creates Streetcar Committee - Dave Reid - Jun 18th, 2009
- Milwaukee Streetcar Round-Up - Jeramey Jannene - Apr 19th, 2009
- Vote For Your Favorite Milwaukee Streetcar Route - Jeramey Jannene - Mar 25th, 2009
- Design Your Own Streetcar Route - Jeramey Jannene - Mar 23rd, 2009
- Milwaukee Streetcar Map - Jeramey Jannene - Mar 21st, 2009
- Streetcars Coming to Milwaukee - Dave Reid - Mar 14th, 2009
- Palomar or Streetcar? - Jeramey Jannene - Jan 22nd, 2009