Can New Approach End Gerrymandering?
“Efficiency model” goes before courts. It has a chance.
The challenge to Wisconsin’s partisan legislative districts recently survived its first hurdle. A three-judge federal panel rejected motions from Wisconsin Attorney General Brad Schimel to throw out the lawsuit on several grounds, including lack of standing on the part of the plaintiffs and the assertion that the US Supreme Court has already rejected their claims.
While the decision itself was largely about process, the three federal judges proved remarkably clear eyed. Schimel argued that Democrats fared poorly because they cluster in cities:
Democratic supporters are concentrated in specific locations such that they naturally are “packed” into districts drawn using ordinary districting principles.
The judges did not buy this argument, instead describing how Republicans set out to gerrymander the legislative districts:
In January 2011, Scott Fitzgerald, Republican member of the Wisconsin State Senate and Senate Majority Leader, and Jeff Fitzgerald, Republican member of the Wisconsin State Assembly and Speaker of the Assembly, hired lawyer Eric McLeod and the law firm of Michael, Best & Friedrich, LLP, to assist with the reapportionment of the state legislative districts after the 2010 Census. The intent of the speaker and majority leader was to design a pro-Republican partisan gerrymander. To accomplish this goal, the firm supervised the work of legislative aides in planning, drafting and negotiating Wisconsin Act 43, which contains the 2012 Assembly districting plan.
The law firm and the aides used past election results to measure the partisanship of the electorate and to design districts that would maximize the number of districts that would elect a Republican and minimize the number of districts that would elect a Democrat. This would be accomplished in two ways, by “cracking” or “packing.” Cracking means dividing a party’s supporters among multiple districts so that they fall short of a majority in each one. Packing means concentrating one party’s backers in a few districts that they win by overwhelming margins. Both cracking and packing result in “wasted” votes, that is, votes cast either for a losing candidate (in the case of cracking) or for a winning candidate but in excess of what he or she needed to prevail (in the case of packing).
The firm and the aides received assistance from Dr. Ronald Keith Gaddie, a professor of political science at the University of Oklahoma. Gaddie created a model that analyzed the expected partisan performance of all of the districts established by Act 43. Gaddie’s model forecast that the Assembly plan would have a pro-Republican “efficiency gap” of 12 percent. The efficiency gap is the difference between the parties’ respective wasted votes in an election, divided by the total number of votes cast.
The judges then go on to describe the secrecy the legislative leaders imposed while the redistricting plan was developed—Republican legislators were allowed to view only the portion that concerned their districts, and Democrats were not allowed to see any of it. Act 43, the law that incorporated the Republican redistricting plan, was passed a week after it was released to the public.
The effectiveness of the cracking and packing strategy is demonstrated by the 2012 election, where Democrats received 51.6 percent of the state-wide Assembly vote, but had a majority in only 39 of the 99 districts.
The chart on the right shows the classic signs of the packing and cracking strategy. The red bars show districts with a majority of Republican voters; in blue districts the majority is Democratic.
Many of the Democrat-majority districts have very high percentages of Democrats—the “packed” districts. Eleven Wisconsin districts have over 80 percent Democrats while none have over 80 percent Republicans. 30 of the 39 majority Democratic districts are over 60 percent Democratic.
By comparison, there are 39 districts where the Republican majority is less than 60 percent. That includes 26 districts where the Republican majority is between 55 and 60 percent, putting them safely out of reach of Democrats.
Another way of viewing the same data is through cumulative percentages. The next chart compares the actual distribution of districts (blue dots) compared to a normal cumulative distribution (red line), with the same mean and standard deviation as the actual values. The bulge just short of 50 percent shows districts from which Democrats were removed (cracked) and packed into high Democratic districts, converting these districts from majority Democratic to majority Republican. There are far fewer heavily Republican districts than one might expect and many more heavily Democratic districts.
By way of comparison, the next graph shows a similar distribution for an alternate redistricting developed using Auto-Redistrict program described in a previous Urban Milwaukee article. Here the actual distribution of districts follows quite closely a normal distribution. Although this distribution shows a slight Republican bias (perhaps due to the natural packing Schimel referred to or the slight Democratic majority in the 2012 election), it has none of the bulges of the actual distribution.
The lawsuit brought against Wisconsin proposes that the courts look at “wasted votes.” This concept was developed by several political scientists who have studied election results.
Under this theory there are two kinds of wasted votes: votes spent on a losing candidate and votes that are more than needed for a candidate to win. It is not possible to get rid of wasted votes; in a race with two candidates half the votes will be wasted. Rather, the theory says that the party with more wasted votes is placed at a competitive disadvantage. This leads to the concept of an “efficiency gap,” defined as the difference between the parties’ respective wasted votes in an election, divided by the total number of votes cast.
While the aim of reformers is to design districts with a small efficiency gap, the aim of the consultant hired by the Republican leadership, the University of Oklahoma professor, was to make it as large as possible. According to the court, his “model forecast that the Assembly plan would have a pro-Republican “efficiency gap” of 12 percent.” It is ironic that a concept developed by political scientists to make elections fairer, was used to lock in one party’s advantage.
Since the aim in developing Act 43 was to inflate the efficiency gap in favor of Republicans, it is to be expected that any alternative plan would reduce the efficiency gap. For example, even when the “fairness” settings on Auto-Redistrict were turned off, the resulting district plan had half the efficiency gap of the current districts in Wisconsin. Districts with Democratic majorities increased from 39 to 47 using Auto Redistrict. While this would still leave Democrats in the minority even after winning a majority of the vote, it would have put them within striking distance of a majority.
Adding in fairness criteria, a new set of districts were generated. While still favoring Republicans the efficiency gap dropped to 2.7 percent with 51 seats with a Democratic majority. Thus almost any change would make the Wisconsin legislature more democratic and more Democratic.
Two of the three members of the panel of judges were appointed by Republican presidents. Despite this, it’s clear that they are not enamored of Act 43:
In 2012, the current plan produced a pro-Republican efficiency gap of 13 percent. In 2014, it was 10 percent. The 2012 figure represents the 28th largest score in modern American history (out of nearly 800 total plans), placing the current plan in the most partisan 4 percent of this distribution, more than two standard deviations from the mean. This historical data suggests that there is close to a zero percent chance that the current plan’s efficiency gap will ever favor the Democrats during the remainder of the decade. Prior to the current cycle, not a single plan in the country had efficiency gaps as high as the current plan’s in the first two elections after redistricting.
As the above paragraph makes clear, the efficiency gap can vary somewhat from one year to another, depending on turnout. 2014 was a low-turnout year for Democrats compared to 2012. It is likely that the gap declined because fewer Democratic votes led to fewer wasted Democratic votes in heavily Democratic districts.
Another decision to make is how to handle those heavily skewed districts in which one party does not bother to run a candidate. One solution would be to base the calculation on voter distribution in statewide races, where every vote has the same weight no matter where it is cast. All these issues are solvable if the courts are willing to tackle the gerrymandering problem.
What happens next? Federal law requires that a “district court of three judges shall be convened … when an action is filed challenging the constitutionality … of the apportionment of any statewide legislative body.” Another section states that “…any party may appeal to the Supreme Court from an order granting or denying, after notice and hearing, an interlocutory or permanent injunction in any civil action, suit or proceeding required by any Act of Congress to be heard and determined by a district court of three judges.” Thus it appears virtually certain that, whatever the three judges decide, the losers will appeal to the Supreme Court.
The Supreme Court has been reluctant to take on gerrymandering cases, in part because of fears that there is not a clear standard of how much gerrymandering is too much. Because of the blatant partisanship of the Wisconsin redistricting, it is hard to imagine any limit upon gerrymandering if the current redistricting plan is upheld. Both parties will be encouraged to maximize gerrymandering when they hold power, and the losers will be the voters — be they Democrat, Republican or independent.
More about the Gerrymandering of Legislative Districts
- 23 Advisory Votes on Gerrymandering - Matt Rothschild - Mar 25th, 2020
- City Hall: Ballots Won’t Have Duplicate Gerrymandering Questions - Jeramey Jannene - Feb 27th, 2020
- Did Gerrymandering Kill Medicaid Expansion? - Erik Gunn - Feb 25th, 2020
- Data Wonk: The Republicans’ Gerrymander Scheme - Bruce Thompson - Feb 5th, 2020
- The State of Politics: Redistricting Fight Is One Year Away - Steven Walters - Feb 3rd, 2020
- Hesselbein Advocates for Fair Maps Constitutional Amendment - State Rep. Dianne Hesselbein - Jan 7th, 2020
- ‘Fair Maps’ Groups to Train Activists - Rob Mentzer - Nov 8th, 2019
- City Hall: City Voters Will Get Gerrymandering Referendum - Jeramey Jannene - Oct 16th, 2019
- Majority of Wisconsin Wants Non-Partisan Redistricting - Ruth Conniff - Oct 2nd, 2019
- Legislation on redistricting ballot issue moves forward - Ald. Cavalier “Chevy” Johnson - Sep 17th, 2019
- Data Wonk: Gerrymandering Is Built on Lies - Bruce Thompson - Sep 12th, 2019
- Data Wonk: The Future of Wisconsin Gerrymandering - Bruce Thompson - Aug 14th, 2019
- Republicans Deny New Gerrymander Plan - Ruth Conniff - Jul 30th, 2019
- GOP Could Bypass Evers, Gerrymander Again - Ruth Conniff - Jul 29th, 2019
- Op Ed: The Game is Rigged in Wisconsin - Spencer Black - Jul 21st, 2019
- Gerrymandering Foes Push Reform - Erik Gunn - Jul 17th, 2019
- Rep. Robyn Vining Continues Fight for Fair Maps - State Rep. Robyn Vining - Jul 16th, 2019
- Statement on Nonpartisan Redistricting Reform Bill - State Rep. Lisa Subeck - Jul 16th, 2019
- Gerrymandering Bill is Bipartisan - Laurel White - Jul 12th, 2019
- Op Ed: Redistricting Now Up to Citizen Action - Jay Heck - Jul 2nd, 2019
- Rep. Robyn Vining Says Fight for Fair Maps Is Not Over - State Rep. Robyn Vining - Jun 28th, 2019
- U.S. Supreme Court Allows Gerrymandering - Laurel White - Jun 28th, 2019
- Statement on U.S. Supreme Court decision on Partisan Gerrymandering - Fair Elections Project - Jun 27th, 2019
- Waupaca County Opposes Gerrymandering - Matt Rothschild - Apr 29th, 2019
- 45 Counties Want to Ban Gerrymandering - Wisconsin Democracy Campaign - Apr 19th, 2019
- Data Wonk: Walker Seeks to Gerrymander America - Bruce Thompson - Apr 3rd, 2019
- Murphy’s Law: The Arrogance of Robin Vos - Bruce Murphy - Mar 21st, 2019
- Data Wonk: The Gerrymander Wars March On - Bruce Thompson - Mar 20th, 2019
- The State of Politics: How Evers Would End Gerrymandering - Steven Walters - Mar 18th, 2019
- Evers’ Budget Will Include Nonpartisan Redistricting Process - Shawn Johnson - Feb 27th, 2019
- Representative Subeck Applauds Governor Evers’ Plan to Ensure Fair Election Maps - State Rep. Lisa Subeck - Feb 26th, 2019
- Rep. Hesselbein Supports Governor Evers’ Fair Maps Plan - State Rep. Dianne Hesselbein - Feb 26th, 2019
- Rep. Spreitzer Supports Gov. Evers’s Redistricting Reform - State Rep. Mark Spreitzer - Feb 26th, 2019
- Statement on Governor Evers’ announcement he will include nonpartisan redistricting reform in his proposed budget - Wisconsin Fair Elections Project - Feb 26th, 2019
- Rep. Robyn Vining Embraces Gov. Evers’ Inclusion of Redistricting in Budget - State Rep. Robyn Vining - Feb 26th, 2019
- Op Ed: Why We Oppose Gerrymandering - Andrea Kaminski - Feb 20th, 2019
- Murphy’s Law: Republicans Oppose Gerrymandering - Bruce Murphy - Jan 29th, 2019
- Op Ed: Gerrymandering Costs Taxpayers Millions - James Rowen - Jan 23rd, 2019
- Data Wonk: Gerrymander is Alive and Well - Bruce Thompson - Dec 12th, 2018
- Board Adopts Supervisor Moore Omokunde Proposal to Decriminalize Marijuana - Sup. Supreme Moore Omokunde - Nov 6th, 2018
- Murphy’s Law: The Fight Against Gerrymandering - Bruce Murphy - Oct 30th, 2018
- Democrats Refile Redistricting Suit - Shawn Johnson - Sep 16th, 2018
- Amended Whitford Complaint Highlights Harm Caused by Wisconsin’s Partisan Gerrymander to 40 Plaintiffs Across 34 Districts - Campaign Legal Center - Sep 14th, 2018
- The State of Wasted Votes - Malia Jones - Jul 2nd, 2018
- Data Wonk: Can Democrats Still Contest Gerrymander? - Bruce Thompson - Jun 27th, 2018
- The State of Politics: Democrats Rejected Redistricting Reform - Steven Walters - Jun 25th, 2018
- Supreme Court Punts on Gerrymandering - Shawn Johnson - Jun 18th, 2018
- Republican State Leadership Committee: The Efficiency Gap is “Sociological Gobbledygook” - Republican State Leadership Committee - Jun 18th, 2018
- Response to Gill v Whitford decision to remand back to trial court - Fair Elections Project - Jun 18th, 2018
- The Art Of Gerrymandering Milwaukee - Malia Jones - Jun 9th, 2018
- The Push for Nonpartisan Redistricting - Cathleen Draper - Jun 5th, 2018
- U.S. Supreme Court Nears Decision on Wisconsin Redistricting Case - Cathleen Draper - Jun 2nd, 2018
- Data Wonk: Many Republicans Oppose Gerrymandering - Bruce Thompson - Mar 14th, 2018
- The State of Politics: Will U.S. Supremes Rule on State Districts? - Steven Walters - Feb 19th, 2018
- Back in the News: Majority Now Backs Fair Redistricting - Bruce Murphy - Feb 5th, 2018
- Data Wonk: John Roberts’ Nightmare - Bruce Thompson - Oct 11th, 2017
- The State of Politics: You Be The Judge on Redistricting - Steven Walters - Oct 2nd, 2017
- Op Ed: U.S. Supreme Court Should End Partisan Gerrymandering - Andrea Kaminski - Sep 26th, 2017
- Data Wonk: Judges Consider a Democratic Gerrymander - Bruce Thompson - Aug 30th, 2017
- Op Ed: 24 Counties Have Voted for Fair Maps - Matt Rothschild - Aug 25th, 2017
- Data Wonk: Right Wing Seeks to End Democracy? - Bruce Thompson - Aug 23rd, 2017
- Data Wonk: US Supreme Court Wrong on Redistricting? - Bruce Thompson - May 31st, 2017
- Op Ed: Save Taxes With Nonpartisan Redistricting - Andrea Kaminski and Lindsay Dorff - May 26th, 2017
- Data Wonk: Why GOP Backs Gerrymander - Bruce Thompson - May 24th, 2017
- Data Wonk: State’s Political Map At Issue - Bruce Thompson - May 18th, 2017
- Rep. Peter Barca Statement on Attorney General Appeal of Redistricting Decision - State Rep. Peter Barca - Feb 24th, 2017
- Fair Elections Project calls upon Legislature to focus on fair map drawing process - Wisconsin Fair Elections Project - Feb 24th, 2017
- Campaign Cash: GOP’s Redistricting Lawyers Are Big Donors - Matt Rothschild - Feb 6th, 2017
- Op Ed: Reject Partisanship, Redraw Voting Maps - Andrea Kaminski - Feb 3rd, 2017
- Rep. Peter Barca Statement on Assembly Organization Committee Secret Ballot - State Rep. Peter Barca - Feb 2nd, 2017
- Court Watch: Court’s Redistricting Order A Problem? - Bruce Thompson - Feb 1st, 2017
- Rep. Hesselbein Calls for Open, Transparent, and Public Process for Drawing New Legislative Lines - State Rep. Dianne Hesselbein - Jan 27th, 2017
- Wisconsin Federal Court Permanently Blocks State Redistricting Plan - Wisconsin Fair Elections Project - Jan 27th, 2017
- Data Wonk: 2016 Election Results Prove Gerrymandering - Bruce Thompson - Dec 28th, 2016
- Plaintiffs call for new maps for Wisconsin legislative district - Wisconsin Fair Elections Project - Dec 21st, 2016
- Data Wonk: Measuring Wisconsin’s Gerrymandering - Bruce Thompson - Dec 7th, 2016
- Sen. Taylor statement on federal court ruling against Republican gerrymandering - State Sen. Lena Taylor - Nov 21st, 2016
- Statement on Redistricting Ruling - State Sen. Chris Larson - Nov 21st, 2016
- Federal Court overturns unconstitutional gerrymandering of Wisconsin legislative districts - Wisconsin Fair Elections Project - Nov 21st, 2016
- Rep. Barca Statement on Redistricting Decision - State Rep. Peter Barca - Nov 21st, 2016
- HISTORIC DECISION: Wisconsin Federal Court Strikes Down Partisan Gerrymander and Adopts Groundbreaking Legal Standard - Campaign Legal Center - Nov 21st, 2016
- Murphy’s Law: The Myth of Democratic Gerrymandering - Bruce Murphy - Jan 26th, 2016
- Data Wonk: Can New Approach End Gerrymandering? - Bruce Thompson - Jan 6th, 2016
- Federal Lawsuit to Overturn Unconstitutional Gerrymandering of Wisconsin Legislative Districts Continues - Wisconsin Fair Elections Project - Dec 17th, 2015
- Can Auto Redistricting End Gerrymandering? - Laura Thompson - Dec 10th, 2015
- Assembly candidate Brostoff calls for non-partisan redistricting - State Rep. Jonathan Brostoff - Apr 17th, 2014
- Redistricting reform the antidote to Republican extremism - Press Release - Nov 13th, 2013
- Lazich, August, Fitzgerald and Vos Still Silent on Redistricting Reform Public Hearings As Support & Pressure Builds - Common Cause in Wisconsin - Sep 17th, 2013
- Freshmen legislators push new legislation to correct flawed partisan redistricting process - Press Release - Apr 11th, 2013