PFAS, Other Pollutants Found In Rivers
Testing of areas of concern in harbor area, rivers found higher pollution upstream from harbor.
PFAS compounds (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances) have been detected in the Milwaukee Estuary, which was designated as an Area Of Concern by the U.S./Canada International Joint Commission in 1987. The area includes the inner and outer harbors and nearshore waters of Lake Michigan and the lower portions of the Milwaukee River (downstream of the North Avenue Dam, the Menomonee River (downstream of 35th St.) and the Kinnickinnic River (downstream of Chase Ave.). Samples were taken from this entire area in November 2019, and the recently completed analysis by the Department of Natural Resources (DNR) indicated the presence of the forever chemicals, as PFAS has been dubbed.
PFAS chemicals are part of a group of possibly thousands of man-made compounds which have a long and storied history in American industry. From firefighting foam to Teflon pans, non-stick coatings to even clothing, PFAS chemicals have been used in countless products over decades.
In that time, the compounds have contaminated a variety of environments including but not limited to ground water, waterways, and landfills. High levels of exposure to the chemicals have been linked to a variety of health concerns in humans and other animals, including cancers, low fertility and birth defects. The contamination of humans and farm animals in a rural American community became the subject of the 2019 movie Dark Waters. The film focused on PFOA (Perfluorooctanoate) and PFOS (Perflurooctane sulfonate) compounds, which are related to PFAS.
Some 13 locations Milwaukee’s area of concern were sampled for 35 different PFAS compounds. The highest levels of PFAS were found in samples taken furthest upstream from Lake Michigan.
In the Kinnickinnic River, samples of PFHxS (Perflurohexanesulfonate) were found at 44.4 parts per trillion (ppt) in the surface water. PFOS chemicals were found at 9.1 parts per billion (ppb) within sediment in the region. However, samples taken closest to the drinking water source flowing through the Linnwood and Howard Avenue Water Treatment Plants, PFOA and PFOS were detected at 1 ppt. PFAS levels found in the Milwaukee Esturary were generally lower than those found in Madison’s Starkweather Creek, though higher than recent samples from the Wisconsin, Mississippi and Menomonee Rivers.
While clean-up operations are organized, residents near any of these areas are advised to avoid eating fish from these waters. Especially for Starkweather Creek and Lake Monona, but also in the areas of the Milwaukee Estuary and nearby rivers. That being said, the compounds can also be found in animals which drink from these waters, including deer and livestock. PFAS and their innumerable cousin-compounds are highly dynamic in how they move through the environment, and do not degrade.
PFAS clean up largely revolves around the DNR working with the parties responsible for individual contamination sites, essentially getting the to clean up their own mess. The spread of COVID-19, however, has created new challenges and impediments to clean-up operations. The DNR is currently evaluating a request to halt sampling from Johnson Controls which, along with its subsidiary Tyco Fire Products, is responsible for several sites. In a Zoom meeting open to the public on April 15, DNR remediation and redevelopment program director Christine Haag said the request is still being evaluated.
Reprinted with permission of Wisconsin Examiner.
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Read more about Area of Concern Abatement Effort here
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- Results Of Statewide PFAS Sampling In Private Wells Now Available - Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources - Nov 3rd, 2023
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- EPA Finalizes Rule to Require Enhanced PFAS Reporting to the Toxics Release Inventory - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - Oct 20th, 2023
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Read more about PFAS Problem here